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In the last mail Prime Performance Solution shared some effective tips on parenting, which I am sure you all have found helpful now we are sharing with you four basic parenting styles which we all follow unconsciously without even knowing the impact of our parenting style on our children. Diana Baumrind studied social, clinical and developmental psychology in the late 1940s and early ’50s. During the 1970s, she conducted extensive studies of parent-child interactions in the home. Baumrind developed the theory that there were four main types of parenting styles and that difference in parenting styles accounted for the way children functioned socially, emotionally and cognitively.

1. Authoritarian Parenting

In this style of parenting, children are expected to follow some set of rules established by the parents and failure to follow those, results in punishment. Authoritarian parents fail to support their decision with reasons. If children insist to explain, the parent might simply reply, “Because I said so.” These parents have high demands, but are not responsive to their children. According to Baumrind, these parents “are obedience- and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation” (1991).

Children with authoritarian parents may be well-behaved, but they are also likely to be moody and anxious; they tend to be followers rather than leaders. These children are generally obedient and proficient, but they rank lower in happiness, social competence and self-esteem.

2. Assertive Democratic Parenting

Assertive democratic parents to establish rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. However these parents are more democratic. Assertive democratic parents are responsive to their children and willing to listen to questions. When children fail to meet the expectations, these parents are more nurturing and forgiving rather than punishing. Baumrind suggests that these parents “monitor and impart clear standards for their children’s conduct. They are assertive, but not intrusive and restrictive. Their disciplinary methods are supportive, rather than punitive. They want their children to be assertive as well as socially responsible, and self-regulated as well as cooperative”.

Assertive democratic parenting style tend to result in children who are happy, capable and successful (Maccoby, 1992).

3. Indulgent Parenting

Indulgent parents have very few demands to make of their children. These parents rarely discipline their children because they have relatively low expectations of maturity and self-control. According to Baumrind, indulgent parents “are more responsive than they are demanding. They are nontraditional and lenient, do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation, and avoid confrontation”. Indulgent parents are generally over nurturing and communicating with their children, often taking on the status of a friend more than that of a parent.

Indulgent parenting often results in children who rank low in happiness and self-regulation. These children are more likely to experience problems with authority and suffer with low confidence, tend to perform poorly in school.

4. Neglecting Parenting

Neglecting parenting style is characterized by few demands, low responsiveness and little communication. While these parents fulfill the child’s basic needs, they are generally detached from their child’s life. In extreme cases, these parents may even reject or neglect the needs of their children.


Neglecting parenting styles rank lowest across all life domains. These children tend to lack self-control, have low self-esteem and are less competent than their peers.


“Prime Performance Solutions” recommend that different parenting style should be adopted in different situations or with different children. No single style is ideal alone rather blend of all four is required.

Rakesh Sharma

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